March 29, 1960

George Ross’s column in the Tribune today took on “a fellow who writes for one of the lesser papers across the bay” who complained that “Oakland is a bush league town,” said he’d give 50-to-1 odds that Oakland never built a stadium, and wouldn’t support the team even if they did. Ross didn’t identify the writer or the paper.1 To counter the other writer’s argument, Ross provided quotes from the Raider owners.

Ed McGah: “For the benefit of the few readers the guy might have on this side of the bay, I’ll cover some of that 50-to-1 money right now.”

Robert Osborne: “I’ve got 10-to-1 we’ll get a stadium and the Raiders will be in it, and so will an American League baseball team.”

Wayne Valley: “We wouldn’t be here today if we weren’t sure a stadium is going to be built in Oakland. We’re preparing for the 1961 season, our preseason ticket sales campaign is under way, we’re expecting better crowds than last year, we see no reason to think the Raiders won’t be playing football in 1962, 1963, 1970, and in Oakland as soon as possible.”

Oakland Tribune

1. I poked around but couldn’t find who the author or the paper was.

Wayne Valley

Francis Wayne Valley
Born March 28, 1914, Portland, Oregon
Died October 2, 1986, Piedmont, California, age 72

Wayne Valley was the primary moving force behind the Oakland Raiders during the AFL years. After Chet Soda’s departure in early 1961, Valley took the reins and made the decisions that made the Raiders a professional football power by the end of the decade. His most consequential decision, though, the hiring of Al Davis in 1963, ultimately led to the usurpation of his authority and after a bitter power struggle, he sold out just months before the team won its first Super Bowl championship.

Francis Wayne Valley was born March 28, 1914 to a schoolteacher from Maine named Abbie and her French-Canadian husband who died within a year of Valley’s birth.[1] Two years later, the widowed mother moved to Oakland with her infant son and took a teaching position at tiny Beulah Grammar School.

Wayne attended his mother’s school and as he grew up developed an aptitude for sports. After graduating from Castlemont High in 1931, he attended St. Mary’s College briefly before heading north to Oregon State Agricultural College (now Oregon State University). There, he worked as a lumberjack to earn his way through school. He hadn’t played football in high school but turned out for the Oregon State squad and played well enough to be named a team captain in 1935. For academic reasons, he later transferred to the University of Oregon where he completed his degree.

By 1940 he was married to the former Gladys Leibbrand, with whom he had four children: Patrick Wayne, Tamara, Sonya, and Michael. Following in the footsteps of an uncle who had been in the trade, Valley started a home building business in 1940 that would earn him a small fortune in the coming years. By 1960 he was “a millionaire several times over,” owned a private airplane, and Besco, his business partnership formed with a man named Jack Brooks, was building shopping centers and thousand-unit housing developments.

Almost from the beginning, he had dreamed of owning a pro football team. During the war years, he and fellow builder Ed McGah had tried unsuccessfully to buy a semi-pro team in San Francisco and later the pair tried to get involved with the All-America Football Conference 49ers, but that deal fell through, too. So, when the chance came to get an American Football League franchise for Oakland, it was only natural that Valley was in on the deal.

He was the Raiders’ vice president under Soda the first season. Arguments over how to spend money led to a major reorganization of the ownership group, resulting in five of the eight owners selling out and leaving Valley in an ascendant position. He was still vice president, under McGah, but as the only member of the group to have played the game at a high level, he tended to take the lead in controlling field operations.

Fellow owner Robert Osborne’s ill-health and arguments over keeping the team in Oakland resulted in his departure, leaving just McGah and Valley holding the reins. Two awful seasons in 1961 and 1962 almost ended with the league taking back the franchise and in a last effort to right the ship, Valley hired Chargers assistant Al Davis as head coach and general manager. Davis immediately made the Raiders a contender in the AFL west and as a result earned a reputation as a young football genius, an epithet Valley would apply to him, both in praise and in derision, over the coming decade.

With the team’s continued existence assured, Valley split time between the team and running his development business. After Davis’s brief stint as AFL Commissioner in 1966 ended with the merger, Valley and McGah welcomed him back to the Raiders as the third general partner, giving him a small piece of the team that would grow over time, and paid him a salary to take charge of football operations.

Davis slowly expanded his influence over the team, causing Valley to have some misgivings, but a tragedy in the spring of 1969 pushed all thoughts of the Raiders aside for a time. His son, Wayne Jr., who like his father had been a standout football player at Oregon State, drowned in a swimming accident. The 25-year-old had been swimming with friends in the North Santiam River in Oregon. After jumping off a rock into the water he failed to surface. It wasn’t until several days later that his body was found two miles downstream from where he went in.

When he returned to football, he continued to take an active role in league as well as team operations, serving on the NFL’s player relations committee in the early 1970s. In 1973, though, a fissure opened in the Raider partnership that would lead to Valley’s departure. According to a lawsuit Valley filed in April, McGah had signed Davis to a 20-year contract extension that would give Davis what amounted to dictatorial powers over the team’s operations. Valley argued that McGah and Davis had not informed him of the contract offer prior to Davis’s signing of it and wanted it declared invalid. Davis contended that Valley had been aware of the contract months before and McGah argued that Valley was airing dirty laundry in public, that Valley had made a mess of things when he was in charge, and that Davis was the superior choice for the position.

The suit played out in both the courts and in the public opinion arena for couple of years but was eventually decided mostly in Davis’s favor with some reduction in his powers. By then, reconciliation was impossible, and Valley sold his share back to the team in early 1976, less than a year before their first championship.

Still a wealthy man from his housing development operations, Valley spent the next couple of years trying to buy control of the ailing 49ers, but was blocked by Golden State Warriors owner Franklin Mieuli who also owned a small chunk of the Niners. A few years later, when Charlie Finley was threatening to sell the Oakland Athletics to a Denver businessman, Valley made an offer to buy the team. Davis was trying to move the Raiders to Los Angeles at the time and Finley saw the offer as Valley’s way getting under Davis’s skin and rejected it.

By now, Valley’s health was starting to decline. In the mid-60s, he had had his first surgery to treat arteriosclerosis and in 1981 he underwent heart bypass surgery. He lived a few years more, tending to his real estate ventures, but in 1986 he was diagnosed with an unspecified form of malignant cancer that was described as “fast-moving”. He died at home on October 2, survived by his wife Gladys, children Tamara, Sonya, and Michael, and seven grandchildren.

Auburn Journal
Berkeley Gazette
Corvallis Gazette-Times
Eugene Guard
Fremont Argus
Klamath News
Los Angeles Times
Medford Mail-Tribune
Oakland Tribune
Pasadena Independent Star-News
Redlands Daily Facts
Roseburg News-Review
Sacramento Bee
Salem Capital-Journal
Salem Statesman-Journal
San Bernardino County Sun
San Francisco Examiner
San Mateo Times
San Rafael Daily Independent-Journal
Santa Cruz Sentinel
Santa Rosa Press-Democrat
Stockton Independent
Ukiah Daily Journal
United States Census Bureau

[1] I couldn’t find his father’s name in any of the sources I looked at, though it seems pretty certain his father and mother were married at the time of his birth.

Chet Soda

Yster Charles Soda
Born March 15, 1908 in Oakland
Died March 12, 1989 in Oakland, age 80

For the team’s first year, Chet Soda was the face of Oakland Raider ownership. Through the ties he formed in the construction industry, Soda helped put together the coalition that would acquire the last of the American Football League’s charter franchises. Tension and disagreements among the group appeared almost from the beginning and after that first year, Soda was out, but he remained a major player in the Oakland business and sporting scene for the rest of his working life. While his tenure as Raiders owner was short, his work laid the foundation on which the team would be built at least until the coming of Al Davis.

The eldest of the three children of Andrea and Marguerite Soda, Y. Charles Soda was born in Oakland on March 15, 1908. A sister, Mary, came along a year later, and a brother, Stephen, was born in 1912. His father owned and operated a cement and construction business, and following graduation from Fremont High School, Charles joined the business, now named A. Soda and Son.

Through the 1930s and 1940s, the Sodas helped build sidewalks, sewers, and bridges in the East Bay area and grew to be quite prosperous. When Andrea died in 1948, Chet took full ownership of the company. He would be a tireless entrepreneur and administrator his whole life and when he formed H&S Developers, a housing development firm, he grew wealthier still.

By the late 1930s, he had married his wife Helen and they quickly became active in the East Bay social scene. Soda, a Catholic, took part in numerous charitable activities associated with his church and it was probably there where he made the acquaintance of many of the men who would become his partners in the Raiders venture, including Art Beckett, Charles Harney, and Ed McGah.

His interest in the sporting life started to make its appearance in the public sphere after the war. In 1948 he served a one-year stint as president of the Metropolitan Club of Oakland, a group that promoted local sports. He also owned a 2,500-acre ranch in the Hayward Hills where he and Helen bred racehorses and in 1955, he was named a director of the Golden Gate Fields racetrack in Berkeley.

So, when the opportunity came to pursue an American Football League team for Oakland, Soda was a natural fit. He, Robert Osborne, and Wayne Valley, led the effort forming the eight-man coalition that was awarded the league’s last franchise. Soda was named team president and faced the daunting task of hiring coaches and players months after the other teams in the league had begun their efforts. Within days he had hired former St. Mary’s College star Eddie Erdelatz to coach the team and together they began to build a roster.

Soon, though, dissension among the owners began to appear. Art Beckett quietly dropped out in late February and in April, restaurateur Harvey Binns followed suit more noisily, complaining that the parsimony that had served Soda well in his construction business had no place in running a football team. Despite the bickering, the Raiders fielded a competitive team in 1960, going 6-8 and avoiding the cellar that most of the nation’s sports scribes had felt was their due.

Serious divisions began to be made public in December and by January the league had to step in and adjudicate what the owners couldn’t resolve among themselves. On the 16th a settlement was announced. Soda and four of his fellows would sell their shares in the team to McGah, Osborne, and Valley. In getting out, Soda took a personal loss of about $50,000 and would never again take part in the world of pro football.

He threw himself back in the business of building shopping centers and golf courses and took part in all sorts of civic enterprises. He tried to enter politics running for a spot on the board of the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District but finished a distant second. Following that he took positions on the board of a number of public ventures including the Oakland Library and Museum Committee, the Alameda County Fair Association, and the Pacific Racing Association. He was named a regent of St. Mary’s College and in the 1970s became a vice president of the Oakland Board of Port Commissioners and the chairman of the California Horse Racing Board. By 1975 he had retired from running his businesses but still held seats on the port commission, racing board, and was president of the St. Mary’s regents.

By the end of the decade, now in his 70s, he had stepped back from public life, but began to receive a number of humanitarian awards from the community. In 1983 Helen died. They had had no children together. He remarried, to a woman named Rosemary, but in 1989 he entered the hospital for an unspecified surgical procedure, and soon after, on March 12, died at the age of 80.

Berkeley Daily Gazette
Chico Enterprise-Record
Hanford Sentinel
Long Beach Independent
Los Angeles Times
Oakland Tribune
Petaluma Argus-Courier
Sacramento Bee
San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Examiner
Santa Cruz Sentinel
Santa Rosa Press-Democrat
Tulare Advance Register
Ukiah Republican Press
United States Census Bureau

Robert Osborne

Robert L. Osborne
Born November 23, 1897, Cleveland
Died September 26, 1968, Oakland

A mechanical engineer by training and by trade, Robert Osborne moved to Oakland in his mid-thirties and turned his manufacturing business into a small fortune. His experiences as a businessman and industrialist led him to seek a seat on the Oakland City Council, a position he held for 11 years, and his wealth enabled him to be one of the eight original investors in the Oakland Raiders. Opinionated, outspoken, and sometimes reactionary, he was a staunch champion of his adopted city and may have been responsible for keeping the Raiders in Oakland through its darkest days when his fellow owners were ready to sell out or move out.

Born Bryan R. Osborne (or Bryan L. – see note), he was the third of six children born to Don and Agnes Osborne.[1] Don Osborne was a Cleveland attorney who later left law practice and formed a machinery manufacturing firm. His success in the field was marred by bankruptcy in 1912, but he weathered the storm successfully and kept the business going until retiring in the 1920s and moving to the Los Angeles area. Not much is known about Bryan’s youth other than he started going by the name of Robert sometime after 1910 and was a childhood friend of Bob Hope, whose family had moved to Cleveland from the UK in 1908. Though there is only tenuous evidence for it, it is likely that Osborne attended Purdue University after graduating high school, in pursuit of a mechanical engineering degree.

By 1920 Osborne had moved in with his sister and her husband in Cleveland who was an office manager for her father’s company. Osborne himself was probably working as a salesman in the firm. Sometime in the 1920s he married his first wife, Carolyn, and in the early 1930s they adopted a child. Shortly after the adoption, Carolyn filed for a divorce, citing gross neglect, and sued Osborne for lack of support. By this time, Osborne was out of the machinery business and running a Cleveland nightclub.

In 1935 his father died and that same year he and his brother, Don, Jr., traveled west, settling in the Oakland area. He found work as a salesman for a machinery distributor and soon met and married his second wife, Katherine. By 1941 he had started his own business, the Osborne Engineering Company, originally based in San Francisco, but just after the war, he built a $250,000 factory in San Leandro which became his base of operations for most of the rest of his career.

In 1949, Osborne and his wife, who had no kids at time, traveled to Ireland where they adopted a pair of children, Terry and Cecilia (called Teela by everyone who knew her).[2] In 1950, Osborne expanded his operations, acquiring the Malabar Manufacturing Company and building another large plant in San Leandro to house its operations.

Born into a Catholic family and a lifelong communicant himself, Osborne was a regular contributor to the Church’s charitable activities and in 1951 he was elected vice president of the Board of Regents of St. Mary’s College in Moraga. Through these activities he made the acquaintance of several like-minded businessmen, such as Art Beckett, Charles Harney, Ed McGah, and Chet Soda, who would later be his pro football partners.

In 1953 Osborne took his first crack at politics, running for a spot on the Oakland Board of Education, with a platform of increasing local control of schools, increasing teacher pay, and building more classrooms. He lost a close vote, but he wouldn’t give up on politics.

In 1954 he started his own newspaper, the Oakland Free Press, which may have been the start (or the result) of his long-running feud with the Knowland family who ran the Oakland Tribune. The venture never took off, though, and failed within a couple of years. That same year, he received an offer from Victor Morabito, one of the owners of the San Francisco 49ers, to purchase half the team for $275,000. The Morabitos were having money troubles, but were unwilling to give up any voting rights to go with the share of the team, and one of the stipulations of the contract offer gave Victor the right to purchase a new automobile every other year at the team’s expense. Osborne declined the offer, saying he thought Victor should buy his own cars.

In 1957 Osborne made his first fun at an Oakland City Council seat. Accused of running a negative, destructive campaign by his main opponent, he finished a strong second in the primary then easily won the run-off between the top two candidates. His election was characterized as breaking the hold ward politics had had on the council and he was soon described as a “fighting maverick” challenging long-standing practices and what he believed was a cavalier attitude toward taxpayer money. Throughout his time on the council he was regarded as something of a gadfly, opposing tax increases and poverty relief measures, and taking a dim view of the increasing power of racial minorities in city politics.

With a high profile in local affairs he was one of the leading figures in the effort to bring an American Football League franchise to Oakland. Along with many of his fellow leaders in the Catholic community and some other well-heeled acquaintances, he persuaded the league to give them a team and acted as an early spokesman on matters such as coaching hires and the building of a stadium.

Very much an Oakland partisan, he took serious issue with his fellow owners, especially Soda, when any of them suggested moving the team out of town in response to poor attendance and financial losses. Matters came to a head in January 1961 resulting in five of the owners selling out, leaving the team in the hands of Osborne, McGah, and Wayne Valley, with Osborne taking on the role of team treasurer.

Soon after the team’s reorganization, Osborne faced an election to retain his council seat and won by a better than 3-to-1 margin over his nearest competitor. With a comfortable win under his belt he continued his council work and that of running his team. Despite stronger leadership, though, the Raiders were still playing before sparse crowds in San Francisco and the owners were bleeding cash. While he was working to find a place to play in the East Bay, McGah and Valley were making noises about having to sell the team to outside bidders. Osborne again came out in strong opposition to the idea, but as the controversy gained steam, he began to have health problems, suffering a series of small heart attacks, including one while attending a game against the Chargers at Candlestick Park. As a result, he spent two weeks in the hospital followed by another three months of home convalescence, seriously curtailing his work with either the team or the council.

As a result of increasing differences with McGah and Valley and his health difficulties, he sold his share of the Raiders to the other two in May 1962. That same year he began to downsize his manufacturing operations, closing one plant and auctioning off the equipment, while continuing to act as a broker, buying and selling equipment.

Slowed, perhaps, but undaunted he continued his support of fiscal conservatism, taking on his biggest project yet, opposing the construction of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) rail network, complaining that the cost to the city was far too high and that the contract provided far too much latitude for uncontrolled spending beyond that called for in the contract. He would lose the fight, eventually, but he never tired of trying to slow the project down.

In 1964 he suffered another heart attack and spent two more weeks in the hospital but recovered and felt well enough to seek re-election the following year. This time he was unopposed and continued his fight against what he saw as irresponsible spending and catering to interest groups he thought didn’t contribute enough in taxes.

In 1967 he was joined on the council by former Raider co-owner Harvey Binns, whose brash style sometimes rankled Osborne, but they shared enough political goals to often end up on the same side of issues.

However, his health continued to deteriorate. He frequently missed council meetings because of illness and at the age of 70 was plainly in decline. On September 20, 1968, he entered an Oakland hospital and suffered a “severe” heart attack two days later. He held on for four more days but died on the morning of the 26th.

Eulogies praised his service to the city of Oakland and recognized his “vigorous pursuit of economy and fiscal control.” He was survived by his wife, two children, and one grandchild.

Chico Enterprise-Record
Cleveland Leader
Cleveland Plain Dealer
Mansfield News-Journal
Napa Journal
Napa Valley Register
Oakland Tribune
Pomona Progress-Bulletin
Sacramento Bee
San Francisco Examiner
San Mateo Times
San Pedro News-Pilot
Santa Rosa Press-Democrat
Santa Rosa Republican
Zanesville Times-Recorder
United States Census Bureau

[1] The 1900 census lists him as Bryan L. The 1910 census lists him as Bryan R. The 1920 census lists him as Robert L. I could find no explanation for any of the changes. Oddly, the Osborne’s eldest child was listed as Margaret in the 1900 census and Irene M. in the 1910 census, so somewhere there was a significant change of heart.

[2] Nothing in any of the stories says whether Terry and Teela, who were both a year old at the time of their adoption, were twins, or even siblings by birth.

January 15, 1961

It took a seven-hour meeting and intervention by AFL commissioner Joe Foss, but the long-rumored ownership shakeup finally happened.

The day started with the eight owners getting together to try and resolve the mutual antipathies that had built up among the various group cliques. Three hours in and with nothing settled, Foss arrived in person with a pair of league lawyers.

As Foss explained, behavior at recent league meetings had shown that “all was not well in Oakland. It was decided then that I should come to Oakland for the meeting. I was authorized to take away the franchise if the problems couldn’t be worked out. I got here after the men had been in session for three hours and had reached an impasse.” Everyone agreed they wanted to keep the team in Oakland, but Foss said, “they just couldn’t get along and it was obvious one group had to sell out. For the next four hours, I and the league attorneys listened to both sides of the argument and finally a sale agreement was reached. Everyone in the league feels that Oakland can become one of our great franchises.”

It was decided that Don Blessing, Charles Harney, Roger Lapham, Wallace Marsh, and Chet Soda would sell their shares to Ed McGah, Robert Osborne, and Wayne Valley. McGah would retain his position as president, with the vice presidency going to Valley, and Osborne assuming the treasurer role.

Afterward, Valley said, “The three of us have wanted all along to proceed in Oakland. We are all East Bay businessmen and we feel that we can succeed.” Asked about rumors that the team would pursue austerity, he added, “We want to win, and we are businessmen, and within those confines we shall move forward. We have lots of things to look into and personnel to evaluate. This is not to say that we are unhappy with the people we now have.”

One of those people was Eddie Erdelatz who, responding to the news that the team would stay in town, said it was “one of the greatest things to happen to the city of Oakland. We will make every effort to field a team Oakland can be proud of next season. The American League has shown what it can do on the field. Our fans were pleased with the wide-open style of play and I feel we’ll have much larger crowds next year.”

Oakland Tribune
San Francisco Chronicle

 

January 4, 1961

According to Scotty Stirling in the Oakland Tribune, the anticipated shakeup among the Oakland Raider ownership had begun, with Ed McGah, Robert Osborne, and Wayne Valley assuming more dominant roles. As an interim measure, McGah was named president with Bud Hastings taking the post of acting general manager.

Valley said, “We met for three hours and named McGah president and appointed Bud acting general manager. That was the heart of the meeting. We haven’t had time to think about filling the general manager’s job on a permanent basis because right now we are more concerned with signing some of our top draftees.” The team hadn’t ruled out removing the “acting” from Hastings’ job title at some point.

Hayward Daily Review
Oakland Tribune
San Francisco Chronicle

October 17, 1960

A day after the team’s biggest win, the owners continued to be concerned by anemic attendance figures. Yesterday’s game drew 11,500, consistent with the numbers for previous home games, but still disappointing. Some members of the ownership group thought the $4.50 top price was simply too high.

“It’s too late to do anything about it this season,” said Don Blessing, “but next year I think we’ll quite definitely have to drop our prices. It’s obvious that people aren’t ready to pay the same price as for the 49ers,” and thought $3.00 to be about right.

Fellow owner Ed McGah wanted to go even lower. “I’d like to see the price cut in half to $2.25,” he said. “We expected to lose this year and maybe next year, but not this much.”

Chet Soda cautioned his colleagues not to be so hasty. “The team is starting to roll and that is our primary concern right now,” he said. “We have two deals now for fans to buy tickets at a reduced price and Sunday only 71 people took advantage of them. I think the attendance will pick up as the team catches on with people. We have an owner’s meeting scheduled tomorrow and I’m sure we’ll discuss the matter further, along with other subjects.” He also said he and his fellow owners were “real proud of the team and starting to smell roses.”

Hayward Daily Review
Oakland Tribune
San Mateo Times

August 25, 1960

While the team was flying to Massachusetts, Raider owners Chet Soda and Wayne Valley were in New York trying to persuade Joe Cronin and Dan Topping of the American League to put an expansion baseball team in Oakland. The trip was all part of an effort to drum up support for public funding of a stadium in the East Bay. Fellow owners Robert Osborne and Ed McGah and Oakland mayor Clifford Rishell were also involved in the process. The passage of a bond issue slated for the fall election was at stake and the group hoped the prospect of a baseball team coming to town would boost their chances.

Soda thought the cost of a American League franchise would be in the neighborhood of $500,000 to $750,000 and said that if they couldn’t get a stadium in Oakland soon, the Raiders might have to move to San Francisco permanently.

Oakland Tribune

July 23, 1960

The Raiders held their second scrimmage of camp and this time owners Don Blessing, Ed McGah, Chet Soda, and Wayne Valley were there to observe. Tom Flores led the first-string “gold” squad while Paul Larson ran the second-string “blue” team. Observers thought Larson’s group performed slightly better, with Larson showing a knack for the bootleg run, but also thought both units showed real improvement since the first scrimmage, four days ago. Head coach Eddie Erdelatz singled out offensive linemen Wayne Hawkins, Jim Otto, and Ron Sabal, along with cornerback Joe Cannavino, for praise, and thought the defense in general showed good speed to the ball.

“It was a better scrimmage than last Tuesday”, according to Erdelatz, “but overall I would have to say it was just fair. The running was improved but we dropped too many passes. The defensive line pursuit was fine. We are getting better in all departments and, considering the short amount of practice, we don’t look too bad.”

Oakland Tribune

February 2, 1960

New names entered the rumor mill for the team’s general manager and head coaching spots, including Green Bay assistant Phil Bengtson, former Cal head coach Pappy Waldorf, and former College of the Pacific athletic director Paul Christopoulos, among others.

Meanwhile, team chairman Chet Soda talked about stadium plans and the fact that there weren’t any good ones at the moment.

“It’s too early to decide,” he said. “If either Oakland or Hayward had something available now, we would certainly give it consideration. As it is, we will have to wait the outcome of the bond issues.”

Oakland’s city council had approved a stadium bond issue for the June ballot, while Hayward’s plan was still in the formative stages. Soda said if neither bond passed it wouldn’t “necessarily mean we would leave the East Bay, which we naturally would favor for a stadium.”

When a reporter pointed out that both Soda and Ed McGah owned property in Hayward, Soda said, “It would not be fair to our partners to let this influence us,” and added, “We don’t consider (the search for a stadium) a major problem right now. We have to get our organizational work out of the way first.”

He did say the team was still hoping the University of California would considering letting the team use Memorial Stadium and he had the backing of the City of Oakland and Alameda County, both of whose governing bodies passed resolutions asking the school to give the team permission.

Clark Kerr, the university’s president, had already gone on record saying pro games on Sunday would “not be in keeping with the church-going university town character of Berkeley.”

Hayward Daily Review
Oakland Tribune
San Francisco Chronicle